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History of Koguryo

By Hyoung-Sik Shin

Ewha Womans University Press, Seoul, Korea 2003



Chap.1 The Results and Tasks of the Studies on Koguryo History
[1] The Studies on the Koguryo in China and North Korea
[2] The Results of the Studies on Koguryo in South Korea

Chap.2 The Characteristics of Koguryo History
[1] The Dignified Grand Empire
[2] The Nation of Stone Technicians
[3] The Society of Dual-life in Present and after death

Chap.3 Koguryo's Figures in the Documents
[1] The Koguryo's Features in Samguk-sagi
[2] The Appearances of Koguryo in Chinese Documents
[3] The North Korea's views on Koguryo

Chap.4 The Formation and Development of Koguryo
[1] The Origin and Beginning of Koguryo
[2] The Development in the Age of Kukne-song and Domination of Manchuria(Northeastern China)
[3] The Prosperity in the Age of Pyong Yang and Establishment of Great Empire
[4] The Downfall of Koguryo and Activities of Koguryo's Emigrants

Chap.5 The Diplomatic Relations and Repulse of Chinese Invasions
[1] The Foreign Policy against China
[2] The Foreign Relations to China
[3] The Repulse of Sui and Tang's Invasions

Chap.6 The Problems of Koguryo's Society
[1] The Enlarging Progress of Koguryo and it's territories
[2] The System of Capital Fortress
[3] The Social Significance of Bu Kyong(Small Ware house)
[4] The Living-hood and Consciousness of Koguryo people

Chap.7 The Stone Culture of Koguryo
[1] The Tumulus of Koguryo
[2] The Locations and Characters of Koguryo Fortress
[3] The Structure and Forms of the Koguryo's Great Wall

Chap.8 The Tumulus Murals of Koguryo
[1] The Artistic and Religious Meaning of Tumulus Murals
[2] The Koguryo's Tumulus Murals at Jian in China
[3] The Koguryo's Tumulus Murals in North Korea



  Koguryo was not a local government by the minorities in China. She was a dignified grand empire in the eastern Asia with individuality and sovereignty. Koguryo maintained the Korean peninsula against Chinese invasions. At the same time, She achieved the high-level culture by metamorphoses of Chinese and Occidental cultures, and it's culture circulated to Beakje, Silla and Japan.

  Koguryo left the great cultural estates in fields of fortress and Tumulus-paintings. The former exhibited their actual lives and the latter showed their future hopes. The fortress protected her nation and Korean Peninsula against Chinese invasions. On the other hand, the tomb-murals indicated their artistic and religious ideas.

  Many Chinese scholars insisted that Koguryo was regarded as a attached regime or a local government in China. But She was a legislative nation in political and diplomatic standpoints. She maintained her political structures unlike China. Especially Koguryo left valuable cultural properties in murals that is a noted kind of ancient Korean culture.

  But Koguryo propelled the southward policies in 5th century including capital removing to Pyong Yang. These political measures mean the outset of downfall. She was nomadic nation in the northern region with mobility, therefore the people of Koguryo had war-like, moblie and diligent characters. In the wake of moving toward the South, they lost their original nature. At last they abandoned their northern territories in Manchuria and were satisfied with plunder of agricultural products and feuds of elite groups in the 7th century. Therefore we can point out that the removal of capital(Pyong Yang) was not an expansion drive but a beginning of decline.

Chinese Conclusion

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